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What is elaboration likelihood model of persuasion?

What is elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion? This model elaborates how attitudes are formed and changed. The crux for this model is the “elaboration Continuum” which varies from low elaboration to high elaboration or low thought to high thought. This model was developed by R.E Petty and J.T Cacioppo in 1980s. This model is used for developing brand equity and demand generation.

It distinguishes between two routes to persuasion;

Central Route: where a subject or receiver considers an idea logically

Peripheral Route: where pre-existing ideas and superficial qualities are used for persuading people.

Actually marketing communication is related to ‘Promotion’ part of 4Ps or marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product) which has attributed many trends in business like transition from customer service to customer relations and transition of human resource to human solutions etc.

Taking example of ad “Olay Regenerist versus Expensive creams TV ad USA may 2009” follow the link at you tube

While analyzing the ad it is clear that it gives a logical price comparison with leading creams whose prices range from $ 100 to $700 whereas the Olay Regenerist’s price is just $ 32 which evokes logical thinking for the subject audience and a thinking standpoint against purchasing the costly creams. This is expressing the Central route for Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion as it gives logical expression about pricing and its comparison to competing forces. The argument presented is very strong so it lies under central route of ELM of persuasion.

Conditions for Central Route:

Messages sent through central route must be complete and straight-forward.

It requires deep thinking about the argument which is presented.

The receiver or subject should have the motivation for message analysis. There are some major advantages associated with the receiver who analyzes the message sent through central route.

Attitude changes will be persistent

Attitude changes will be predictive of the behaviour

It restricts counter-persuasion

It predicts the future behaviour

Central Route uses message elaboration and hence resulting in major attitude change.

Conditions for peripheral route:

This route is successful for messages where receiver has low involvement, low motivation and weak argument. Messages are not processed cognitively unlike the central route persuasion.

It is useful when a person is unable to elaborate a message extensively by deep thinking, then the usage of factors even having no connection with the content of the message can persuade the receiver. So how to persuade a person who has nothing to do with your product? Catchy music tunes, celebrity endorsement and using bright colours are ways of peripheral persuasion.

It uses different irrelevant cues and superficial qualities which generate a minor shift in attitude but quick response for the ad.

Deciding between Central route and Peripheral route:

Two different routes for two different types of messages. Central route can be used for messages when target receiver has high involvement, message should be complete and full of arguments.

Peripheral route can be used to persuade people who have less involvement and no idea about the message.

So, ELM helps to choose the right route for right message. The ELM can be useful for persuasion according to receiver’s involvement.

2. Creating brand associations through cognitive responses evoked by ads that employ the Central Route to Persuasion. Find an ad on an internet site. Use this ad to illustrate the possible cognitive responses that a “thinking” ad might evoke in various consumers and how this type of ad creates brand associations. (Hint: There are 6 kinds of Cognitive Responses.) When is it appropriate to use this technique?

Taking example of ad “Olay Regenerist versus Expensive creams TV ad USA may 2009” follow the link at You Tube

This ad can persuade a person to critically think about the price consideration, availability of product, brand recognition and projected results after usage. As the receiver (working women watching ad on TV) has greater involvement in the product so she will definitely think about the factors critically and will consider each factor while going for purchase. These factors or strong arguments those are described in the ad will have strong recognition by the receiver. And the cognitive responses that might come to various consumers will be price consideration, brand association, brand reputation, previous experience with the brand and proposed result of cream after usage and these responses will change the attitude of the consumer and will bring it to purchase the product with changed attitudes and also this persuasion will remain for longer time.

How it creates brand association?

When the value of the product for the consumer is communicated, it results in creating brand association for the product and creating brand awareness which also enables the consumers to know about and remember the brand. Olay is very famous brand for its cosmetic products and women already have association with the brand. Purchasing the product will enable the consumer to remember the brand. To create the brand association it is very important to build brand image. It means that successful branding of a product is a matter of creating a brand image which is Positive, Memorable, Pleasing and Relevant. Olay’s image is very pleasant and trustworthy amongst women which can be a cause for brand association.

Secondly there comes the consumer’s experience. If the experience is good and memorable it creates an image for the product and brand which results in consumer’s brand association. If consumers have pre-experience of using Olay’s products they will definitely go for the purchase of new cream as they already have experience with the Olay products and it will give a stronger brand association.

3. Leading the consumer through the Stages of Brand Building. Find an ad to illustrate how an ad leads the consumer through the stages of brand building.

Taking example of “Build brand awareness with an integrated video ad” follow the link at You Tube for watching the ad

This ad is related to “Spa Bella” A medical day spa where people are coming and getting treatment for their skin and massage etc. this Spa use the Obagi Medical Products hence building brand recognition amongst its clients. Branded video ads help build brand awareness, sell product and build client loyalty. The question rises How. For brand building some factors are to be addressed to consumers which include Quality, Positioning, credibility, internal marketing and long term perspective for the brand. This ad depicts quality of the products used for the skincare and the credibility of the brand Obagi Medical gives an edge to brand building.

The saloon or spa is using branded products and giving their clients good experience over their regular visits which give brand recognition to clients and hence serving as a step to brand building. Furthermore it also creates a brand image to the customer’s mind and gives them a long term perspective and molds their attitude towards the products and ultimately giving brand a recognition and development.

Quality of the product is of utmost importance for a good brand and it is the core thing expected by the consumers. Positioning refers to the market standing of brand in consumers’ minds. Strong brand have a clear and unique position in its target market. Communication also plays a role as it builds a brand image in consumers’ minds. Long term perspective is also another factor for brand building hence suggesting to invest in the brand even at the expense of short term profitability.

Internal marketing is particularly important in services businesses but helps in building brand equity for products too. It gives the whole business a clear understanding of brand values and positioning.

4. Creating brand associations through Classical Conditioning/Human Associative Learning. Find an ad on You Tube for the following. Use this ad to illustrate and describe how consumers come to learn brand associations via classical conditioning or human associative learning. When is it appropriate to use this technique?

What is classical conditioning?

It is one type of learning process which occurs when conditioned stimulus which did not previously produced a good response for the product becomes associated with unconditioned stimulus which creates the response.

Taking example of milk ad follow the link below on You Tube

This ad illustrates the conditioned response for the consumer also the unconditioned stimulus of visualization of shopping at mall which gives understanding for choosing the specified milk amongst the others. The conditioned stimulus of purchasing milk which did not produced a response previously, was mixed with an unconditioned stimulus of adding a visual effect about purchasing the milk and it resulted in increased sale and brand association as well for the consumers who bought the milk product. Repeatedly pairing these stimuli evokes the conditioned response of choosing the specific brand for milk from a range of brands. The unconditioned stimulus of showingt he process of shopping becomes a reason for generating a conditioned response for the product.

When is it appropriate to use this technique?

Classical conditioning can be used for those ads who did not generated the good response previously, combining the two stimuli one will be neutral stimulus who did not create any good response previously with another unconditioned stimulus that has nothing to do with the message can evoke consumers to produce conditioned response for conditioned stimulus.

5. Creating brand emotional associations. Describe a Marketing Event that was used to promote a brand. Use this to illustrate how such an event can create emotional associations for a brand. When is it appropriate to use this technique?

Following are the details of a marketing event which was organized for promoting the brand and brand association.

Marketing Event for Ben & Jerry’s Ice Cream

This was organized by TEAM MARKETIN USA and they staffed two events in 2010 (one New York metro, one national) with their staff promoting Ben & Jerry’s use of local cows and the distribution of free samples to consumers.

Developing brand image is an art and also making consumers emotionally attached to the brand is of utmost importance for the brand recognition and equity. For the consumers’ retention it serves as a tool to make them emotionally attached to the products. This event made consumers to buy again and created a persistent brand image for Ben & Jerry’s Ice Cream and also gave an emotional attachment to this ice cream brand.

Conducting the marketing event creates emotional association for the brand by giving consumers a delight experience with the product which was Ice Cream, describing our edge over competitor’ products like having better quality and taste and using the local cow’s milk, describing the values for consumers which are associated to the product and giving them free samples and making them aware about the product quality etc, possessing our positives over competitor’s negatives all this lead to emotional association of consumers to the brand.

When is it appropriate to use this technique?

If these events are facilitated with emotional marketing it will give enhanced responses and will build the greater brand association as everyone has impulses and many time our impulses affect our purchase. And after an impulse purchase the consumer gets more satisfied with the purchase. So this technique is appropriate when consumers can be evoked and influenced by the efforts to market the products and giving them a delight experience with the products at marketing event and can pose them the values which products deliver to the consumers.

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