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Water is the basis of life, which is without the life can not exist. It is a source of drinking water for humans and animals and the source of agriculture. Also, it is essential factor for the industry. Thus, our lives on the planet are linked to water and the great River Nile is the lifeblood of life in Egypt. Its revenue is used for domestic use, agriculture and manufacturing so that confirms our lives linked to water. The share of Egypt from the Nile is 55.5 billion cubic meters annually, under an agreement signed in 1959. Despite the growing number of Egypt’s population reaching nearly 62 million the Egypt’s share was not increasing, which means that per capita water from the river had fallen considerably (Tahlawi, M. & Farrag, S,2007). In addition, water quality of the River Nile decreased as a result of chemical and industrial processes, wastewater plants, and runoff.
The main reason behind the water pollution is chemical and industrial processes. This is because the factories and manufacturers in Egypt are throwing industrial and animal waste into streams and rivers that lead to environmental and health problems. The second reason is thermal pollution which is caused by heating water that leads to reduce the amount of oxygen in the water which in turn leads to death of the animals, plants and change in water temperature. Furthermore, there are other reasons that contribute to water pollution such as organic and inorganic pollutants, plastic waste and pesticides. For instance, pesticides and chemical fertilizers cause to increase the amount of nutrient in the water that provide suitable environment to grow algae in water. This contributes to diminish the quantity of oxygen in the water, which lead to death of marine animals. However, water pollution will leads to contamination of soil will cause problems that related to human health and nutrition. The contamination of soil occurs by direct contamination such as using of pesticides for agricultural purposes or waste factories. Also it may occur by indirect contamination when water mixed with chemical a material which leads to leads to poor fertility and low crop production. Furthermore, some of harmful chemical materials will affect on plants and natural composition. This will reduce the mount of nutritional value. However, not only does soil contamination relate to plants, but it also relate to human and animals. Where the contamination of food crops lead to cause health problems owing to eat Food plants or animals (Laurel, J. & Ruthann, A & Swartz, K. ,2008).
Not only does water pollution occur by chemical and industrial processes, but it also caused by wastewater plants. Campaigns have demonstrated the results of monitoring carried out by the ministries of health, housing, irrigation show that wastewater plants contaminate the groundwater in the villages and agricultural areas. These problems will cause to speared disease among those people who do not have clean drinking water supply. Groundwater is an important source for drinking and irrigation. The wasteful use and pollution by harmful substances is a continuing threat to this important source of fresh water. It is exposed to pollution due to irregularities waste plants, oil pipelines, mining, and radioactive materials. Therefore, The Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs is faced this phenomenon of Nile river pollution by implementation of the Environmental Protection Law. This new law led to the concerted efforts between various ministries and agencies which are contributed of deal with 100 million cubic meters of polluted wastewater had been dumped on the river. These efforts will continue to require all industrial establishments and tourist not exchange on the Nile water in order to protect it from any contamination (Tahlawi, M. & Farrag, S.,2007).
Runoff which is come from storms is not clear water because it contains a huge amount of wastes. Furthermore, it considers one of the most serious sources of pollution compared with municipal wastes. There are many studies which have been done by scientist in order to define the problem and resolve it. The writers show that urban runoff can lead to many problems such as direct pollution and overloading which is came from sewage treatment facilities. So writers refer these problems to hydraulic overloading and other kinds of pollution that come with runoff. However, the writers indicate that there is report one providing many solutions in order to reduce water pollution through banding source pollution and improving of level of methods and techniques for checking the street surface pollution. However, also there is research have been made by URS Company in order to collect information about source, quantities, and pollutant properties of street surface pollution and it found a huge amount of information that the pollution related with storm water and sewer system (James, D. & Gail, B & Franklin, J,1974).
From the above, it is clear the extent of contamination incident was the result of human activity on sea coasts and rivers. Also it is because of throw a cargo of sewage, industrial and agricultural in sea coasts and rivers. These harmful factors lead to decreased water quality in the River Nile. However, human consumption of water has increased rapidly with the increase in population numbers significantly Thus increasing the demand for water, at the time remained when the quantity of water resources on earth steady. Also with a shortage of cultivated land to be the protection of water and its sources of pollution in this age of the quantity and quality, and increasing the need to rationalize consumption and saved it is important. Also the right of future generations is to maintain the great river Nile. Also working to rationalize the consumption of water until it finds their children and grandchildren a clean and suitable for use for the purposes of life. Finally, drinking water should be protecting from waste and pollution.
James, D. & Gail, B & Franklin, J. (1974). Water Pollution Control Federation”. In Water Pollution Control Federation. pp. 458. Retrieved October5,2009 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25038149
Fiset, N. ( 2009).” What is the Cause of Water Pollution?”. In Ezinearticles.
Retrieved October5,2009 http://ezinearticles.com/?What-is-the-Cause-of-Water-Pollution?&id=528398
Laurel, J. & Ruthann, A & Swartz, K. (2008). Environment Toxicology and Chemistry.New York: Standford University.
Environment Candad (2007). What are the impact of water pollution? Retrieved October5,2009 www.ec.gc.ca/indicators/default? Long=en&n=AfA3189
Tahlawi, M. & Farrag, S.(2007). Groundwater of Egypt: “an environmental overview”. Research of Groundwater pollution.
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