Pay someone to write your paper and get a speedy homework service. Research paper writing. Term paper writing. Do my homework. Help my essay. Write my research paper service.Order my paper
Conceptions of race within the criminal justice system have always been a controversial issue. Indeed, there is no denying that in terms of prison population ethnic minorities are grossly overrepresented: despite making up only 2% of the total population of Britain, black people still make up 15% of the population of prisons (Ashworth). If one assumes that these statistics represent overt racism within the administration of the criminal justice system then calls for reform and possibility of change will be high, however there has been a tendency to see these statistics as presenting the evidence of an irreconcilable problem, of deeper seated decay within, not just in the lower echelons of the criminal justice system, but society as a whole (Chelitotis and Liebling). If this is so then the answer to whether the criminal justice system can be made to operate equitably in relation to race may require a process of deeper reforms.
It is necessary to assess first the query of whether racism exists within the system and if so, to what extent. Bowling argues that there exists an ‘either, or’ debate; whether the overrepresentation in the prison population is the result of a higher rate of black people committing offences, or, conversely, the result of an accumulation of bias throughout the criminal process. Waters, in his early article Race and the Criminal Justice Process, suggests that the debate can be further defined as those that fall into the ‘legal factors’ camp, who believe that the reason for differences custodial sentence decisions are legal factors such as severity of offence and previous criminal record (which may in themselves be the result of broader structural and economic factors such as unemployment and poverty) and that these variables quite satisfactorily explain the predominance of black people in prison. One the other hand the ‘extra-legal’ factors camp argue that over and above the racial discrimination experienced in society as a whole, black people receive unfair and inferior treatment by virtue of the ethnicity at the hands of a predominantly white justice system.Oxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com
The research conducted by Hood would seem to suggest that there are in existence some extra legal factors and therefore discrimination in sentencing. Hood found that after samples had been matched on variables predictive of custodial sentences (e.g. seriousness of offence, previous convictions, employment, and other pre-sentence report findings) there was a 5% greater chance of being handed a custodial sentence if you were black, and that this difference (which also resulted in black defendants being sentenced for 3 months longer and Asians 9 months longer where a not guilty plea was entered). However Ashworth highlights the fact that Hood’s research does not account for the fact that more black people enter guilty pleas, choose to come to the crown court where sentences given are often harsher and may disproportionately become involved in more serious crime. Thus the study is not conclusive that there does not exist a whole host of other factors why ethnic minorities may come to be within the system in the first place. Indeed, Von Hirsch and Roberts in their reflections on the Hood study highlight the problems inherent in the assumption of a ‘level playing field’ of the variables chosen. For example, with employment: there is evidence that black people suffer from disadvantage in the labour market, so to take this into account when sentencing would amount to an indirect form of discrimination. Thus there are clearly deeper roots of discrimination which cumulatively result in the discrepancies seen. Chelitotis and Liebling argue that differences in levels and patterns of offending may result from a vicious crime circle of stereotyping black people as more crime prone. This leads to over-policing ethnic minority neighbourhoods, thereby drawing more ethnic minorities into the criminal justice net, consequently extending their criminal records and meaning they are more likely to be sentenced severely. They are also therefore more likely to be re-targeted by the police, resulting, again, in increasingly punitive sentencing when they are reconvicted. Thus it would seem the problem is not merely in the overt form of discrimination, but exists throughout the system, perhaps even worsening the lower the visibility level becomes.
One only needs to take a look at the stop and search statistics to see this borne out, black people being 6.5 times more likely to be stopped and Oxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com ), leading to ‘s comment that ethnic minorities are “over policed and under protected”. However, once again the picture is not so clear cut; it can be argued that what the figures actually represent is differences in the type of crime committed, with ethnic minorities being more involved in ‘street crime’ such as drug offences and therefore more likely to be stopped and searched in suspicion of such relatively visible activity. This is further exacerbated by social and demographic factors and by differences in work and leisure life which mean that not only are minorities in greater numbers in areas and at times where searches occur, but that more searches occur in the urban areas in which they live, in which unemployment and social deprivation are high (. Nevertheless the wide discretion accorded to police in such cases means that the prevalence of minority groups in the figures suggests some form of racism.
searched than white people, and Asians twice as likely (Home Office 2005),given that the majority ofthese initial stops do not lead to anyfurther action(87%), it would seemto suggest that this is merely evidence of discriminatoryracial profilingand stereotyping.Whilst the basis of such actions is of s1 ofPACE (which permits police to stop and search with onlyreasonable suspicion)and s60 CJPOA (which permits searches without suspicion where seriousviolence is anticipated or to searchfor weapons), andtherefore essentiallylegal, its exercise can be seen as targeted (Quinton), leading to Reiner’s comment that ethnic minorities are “over policed and under protected”.However,once again the picture is not so clear cut;it can be argued that what the figures actually represent is differences in the type of crime committed,withethnic minorities being more involved in ‘street crime’ such as drug offencesand thereforemore likely to be stopped and searched in suspicion of suchrelatively visibleactivity. This is further exacerbated by social and demographicfactors and by differences in work and leisure life which mean thatnot only are minorities in greater numbers in areas and at times where searches occur, butthatmore searches occur in the urban areas in which they live, in whichunemploymentand social deprivation are high (Philips). Nevertheless the widediscretion accorded to police in such cases means that the prevalenceofminority groups in the figures suggests some formof racism.
Indeed, the Macpherson Inquiry into the Stephen Lawrence affair was elucidatory on the existenceof institutional racism within the police system,defined byMacphersonas “the collective failure of an organisation to providean appropriateand professionalservice to people because of their colour,culture or ethnic origin, it can be seen detected in the processes, attitudes andbehaviour which amountto unwitting prejudice, ignorance,thoughtlessnessand racist stereotypingwhich disadvantages ethnic minorities” and thereforewould accountfor the disproportionate representation ofblacks in the systemand for the high level of racist incidents detected (police recorded racistincidents have increased dramatically from4,383 incidents in 1988 to 52,694 in2004-Home Office). WhilstLeahighlights that Macpherson’s discussion oninstitutional racismfails to locate with sufficientprecision its roots within thestructure of operational policy and the relationship between policeand minority
Oxbridge Essayswww.oxbridgeessays.comOxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com too asserts that institutional racism does exist, and that it stems not only from the occupational culture of the police and the particular forms of contact they have with ethnic minorities, but also from the belief that they are “dangerous classes”. Stopping and searching therefore represents a form of generalised surveillance of those who they believe to have little political capital. In these ways Lea argues that racism does arise from the normal functioning of the police system, a sentiment that was echoed by a comment from the Director General of the Prison Service 2001 when he said that “the prison is an institutionally racist institution which reflects an institutionally racist white society”().
communities,Leatoo asserts that institutional racismdoes exist,and that itstems notonly from the occupational culture of the police and the particularforms of contact theyhave with ethnic minorities, but also fromthe belief thatthey are “dangerous classes”.Stopping andsearching therefore represents aformof generalised surveillance of those who they believe to have little politicalcapital. In these ways Lea argues that racism does arisefrom the normalfunctioning of the police system, a sentiment that was echoed by a commentfrom the Director General of the Prison Service 2001 when he said that “theprison is an institutionally racist institution which reflects an institutionally racistwhite society”(Lea).
Thus it can be seen that a complex interplay of socio-economic, demographic,institutional, structuraland culturalfactors, alongside direct and indirect racialdiscrimination (Philips) are responsiblefor the overrepresentation anddiscriminatory outcomes evident in the system.Edgar and Martinconcur,suggesting that in the context ofdiscussion on discriminatory treatment withinprisons, the experiences of ethnic minorities should be see in the context ofexpectations which might have arisen fromcontact with other criminal justiceagencies. Further,Wacquentnotes that prison confines groups endowed with negative symbolic capital, and that their stigmatisation constitutes part oftherelationship between the confined and thosein authority. Just as the prison,heargues, may mirror external macro-socialtrends, “so too can it lead to theirexistence by stigmatising and curtailing the life chances of ethnic minoritiesfurther”. Thus once again,discrimination can be seen to be adeep-seatedissue, and one which is not necessarily adequately addressed by combatingthe administration of the laws.Waters, in his article, expresses the need todistinguish between concepts ofequality and equity.Indeed, it can be seenthat equality between treatment of black and white offenders does notnecessarily equate tofairness or appropriateness, and we should strive forjustice rather than equality per se in recognition that society is notequal. This is acomparative exercise where quality meansthatsameness is notnecessarily desirable,and justice may demand some differentiation on groundsof race in order to treat all people equitably(Pinder). For example, in relation tothe employment point above, recognising the inequalities in the labour market
Oxbridge Essayswww.oxbridgeessays.comOxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com notes, the challenge for the criminal justice system is to discover at what point negotiated differentiation becomes an imposed discrimination. We need to distinguish between notions of process and outcome; justice and fairness in the way laws are administered does not necessarily make them fair in and of themselves. Thus, there exists discrimination on a broad level within the criminal justice system, which needs to be recognised and addressed at the decision-making level. As advocates, it is necessary to address both the administration of the system with regard to race, but also the policies themselves, and what is necessary to ensure that treatment throughout the system is fair.
and therefore not unduly discriminating against those who are unemployed during sentencing may help to furtherfairness overall. As Van Dykenotes, thechallenge for the criminal justice system is to discover at what point negotiateddifferentiation becomes an imposed discrimination.We need to distinguishbetween notionsofprocess and outcome; justice and fairness in the way laws are administered does not necessarily make themfair inandof themselves.Thus,there exists discrimination on a broad levelwithin the criminal justicesystem,which needs to be recognised andaddressed at the decision-making level. As Von Hirschadvocates, it is necessary to address both theadministration of the system withregard to race,but also the policiesthemselves, and what is necessary to ensure that treatment throughout thesystem is fair.
The fact of the matter, however, is that ethnic minorities do notcare whatreasonsunderpinthe discrimination they are suffering, whether it be due tobroader socio-economic factors or whether it issues directly from the personthey are dealingwith (Waters). The result is a lack of legitimacy in their eyes,attributed to the criminal justice system as a whole, resulting in blackdefendants being more likely to pleadnot guilty and to optfor the Crown court(Von Hirsch),thus furtherincreasingtheir propensity to be sentencedseverely. The problem becomes perpetual:if the justice system is viewed asinequitable it will breed defianceamong those who feel they are not beingtreated fairly, resulting in afurtherhike in the overrepresentation ofethnicminorities within the system. If the system is to made to operate equitably in relation to race it will require a tall order of reforms. Whilst direct and institutional racism can be addressed by ethnic minority recruitment drives within the police force,and racial awareness trainingfor all criminal justiceofficials, the broadersocial-economic issues will require change in politicaland social policy(Hood and Shute). Whatis clearis that race is a covertissue;a difficult problem to attemptto address as so few are willing toacknowledge its existenceoutright(Bosworth). Thus perhaps most pertinentwould be to increase awareness of the prevalenceofbroaderforms of indirectdiscrimination and social inequality and to attempt to keep these concerns in
Oxbridge Essayswww.oxbridgeessays.comOxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com
mind so that decisions at all stages can, at least as much as is possible, be made equitably.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more