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In the fast pace development of the technology market, enterprise’s tangible and intangible resources is a competitive advantage on the basis of tangible resources is the basis for enterprise development, the invisible resources are the engine of growth of competitive advantage, two of those are the source of competitive advantages. This article will be the fast-paced development of technology market premise, according to some examples, focusing on the importance of tangible and intangible resources company competition (Hill, Jones, 2009).
Tangible resources are visible, can use the direct measurement of the monetary resources, including material resources and financial resources
E.g Tangible resources; 2009, Samsung Electronics, the market value has reached $ 110.2 billion, the first time beyond Intel became the the global revenues largest semiconductor manufacturers 1. Samsung’s sales of $ 117.8 billion in 2009, has surpassed HP to become the the global revenues largest electronics companies 2. Is the world’s second largest chip factory, second in size only to Intel 3 in 2008 is the world’s top 21 products, up market share in the market supplier
Intangible resources. A wide range of content, such as trademarks, patents, proprietary technology, customer relationships, corporate image, corporate culture, these intangible resources in the process of production and operation of enterprises play an indispensable role.
E.g Intangible resources: Korea 8782 patents registered in the United States last year, 3611 applications for Samsung Electronics, Samsung Electronics, Samsung Electronics, Samsung Electronics, the percentage of more than 40%. Samsung’s brand value grew fivefold from $ 3.1 billion in 1999 to $ 16.2 billion in 2006 ( Hitt, Ireland, 2008).
The definition of the technology market: the places engaged in the technical intermediary services and technical operations of goods. To promote scientific and technological achievements into practical productive forces for the purpose, specifically to carry out technology development, technology transfer, technical consulting, technical services, technical contract; production or distribution of the research to test new products and technology products; organization and conduct of the promotion and application of technological achievements and other technical coverage involving all areas of technology (Tietze , 2012).
The cell phone industry, as a modern high-tech industry, has a certain representation, several typical company I will for example in the mobile phone industry to analyze:
Samsung Group was founded in 1938, investment in the establishment of Samsung Electronics Company in 1969, involving semiconductors, mobile phones, monitors, laptops, televisions, refrigerators, air conditioners, digital cameras, and IT products and other field In many areas in technology, Samsung has become the world’s leading technology innovation company, it has created a series of state-of-the-art technology, including mobile phones, hand-held computing devices, flat panel displays, as well as ultra-thin laptops. (Viardot, 2004).
Apple’s major industries, including computer software. Hardware. Phone handheld entertainment aspect. Overall have five production lines: Mac, iPod the iPhone and the iPad, i Tune, known for the product i pod digital music player is i Tunes music store, these are containing innovative the high-tech, i phone pioneered mobile devices new start, IPHONE3G of the software revolution (Sengupta, Slater, 2009).
In 1865, Nokia was founded in Finland, Nokia smart phone, entertainment, phone, navigation, phone, have a high technology technology Nokia developed areas including third-generation wireless systems, multimedia applications, network management, mobile phone and other sounds data, video terminals. To maintain its leading position in the rapid development of the telecommunications market (GruneWalder, 2008).
Based on analysis of the tangible and intangible resources of Nokia and Apple
Nokia’s tangible resources
Material resources: Nokia to light electric transmission as the center of development, laying the foundation for Nokia’s semiconductor technology industry. Such as ABS engineering techniques, this technique has the performance of heat-resistant and impact, due to the lower cost of this technique, the majority of computer manufacturers to use.
Financial resources: Nokia in China’s development, the establishment of three joint venture companies, mobile phone production, as well as network equipment, China is the largest market of Nokia, the world’s largest investment areas, due to the low cost of production and processing of the Chinese market, so Nokia to focus on China, in addition to the establishment of a global integrated financial plan, a reasonable business strategy
Nokia intangible resources
Company brand: Nokia founded in Finland, with a long history, and a good social reputation, through continuous research and innovation, powerful software support and network services, so that, on the company in the smart phone, navigation technically are in a leading position in the company with OVI Internet, in the music store, online game store, providing services to obtain the value
Technology: Nokia’s development, always in the front of the R & D development center, working to develop new technologies, including third-generation wireless systems, multimedia applications, to meet customers’ needs, increasing the mass market to maintain the rapid development of the territory
Goodwill: consumers said user for the first time agree, it is only with the GSM technology, the exterior design of the TV for the first time large-screen displays, mobile phones scroll able text menu, the user used to say, very good,leave a very good impression (Hoskisson, 2008)
Apple tangible resources
Product Resources: 2000 i Pod digital music player, with the unique i Tunes music download system, beat some very powerful company and a global share of the first portable player, i pod series launch, more solid Apple position in the music market, i phone combined with a new product of the i pod and Apple TV, the birth of this product, so Apple’s successful transformation from computer production to the electronic company
Financial resources – Apple’s PC and one of the multimedia company, Apple increased net income $ 1,335 one billion, they have the ability to obtain credit.
The tissue Apple also has many systems f control. Apple controls all aspects of the computer, it can provide customers with a complete desktop solution, including hardware, software and peripherals,
Physical resources – Apple company established in California. Apple is a global company with offices around the. They develop good computer on the market with the best materials.
Technology – Apple invented a lot of patents, they developed the first PC, the PC’s graphical user interface (GUI), a point, and then click the mouse, the laser printer, the iPod and iTunes. Apple also includes a window system, investigation procedures, such as Aldus, Page Maker and Microsoft Excel. Apple’s products are user-friendly and unique
Apple’s human resources, the Cupertino, California in the heart of Silicon Valley, bringing together the most talent and an attractive location. The best schools in the country in a very short drive from Apple’s main campus, including Stanford University, the University of California, Barkley, and Santa Clara University. There are so many schools nearby, they enjoy a rich cultural and educational opportunities.
Innovation – Apple invented the PC graphical user interface. Nearly a decade, the the Apple monopoly graphical user interface. When Jobs returned, he manages a hire people who do not want to make the best products in the world of innovation. The key is to let the people with the passion for excellence. Apple now has scientific skills, enabling them to innovation, promote the patent (Afuah, 2009)
Business development, competitors may soon have tangible physical capital resources, but the long-term advantages of intangible resources but is hard to beat. Well-known enterprises of the industrial countries, the value of intangible resources generally exceed the value of physical resources, intangible resources these enterprises trade and occupy the international market and expand the social impact will become an important weapon (Tessiopoulos, 2005).
Enterprise as a social and economic organization. While tangible resources. Also has a wide variety and difficult measurement and grasp the intangible resources. A wide range of content, such as trademarks, patents, proprietary technology, customer relationships, corporate image, corporate culture, these intangible resources in the production development process plays an irreplaceable role.
Trademark. Trademark is used to identify the specific goods or services of the mark, it means the right to use a particular name or pattern specialize in certain specified goods or products generally include the exclusive right to use and the prohibition of the right to two aspects.
Patent. The patent refers to the national patent authorities in accordance with the law grant the inventions patented applicants enjoyed exclusive rights within a certain period of their inventions. The patent generally include three aspects of the invention patents, utility model patents and design patents. Valid patent law
Proprietary technology. The proprietary technology means known to the outside world, has been used in the production and operation activities, a variety of skills and experience do not enjoy legal protection. Generally include the proprietary technology of the industrial, commercial trade proprietary technology, management know-how, etc..
Corporate image. Corporate image usually refers to the public’s evaluation of a company and its products, beliefs and attitudes. Mainly include the popularity and reputation, corporate values, managerial and technical factors such as the comprehensive, implied a huge potential force behind the production and business activities of enterprises.
Customer relationships. Customer relationship usually refers to the purchase of customer and sales of enterprise products, services, manufacturing enterprises in the formation of long-term exchanges and work with each other relationship, this relationship is the invisible presence of a lot of influence, for the improvement of enterprise product sales.
Enterprises cultural. The corporate culture is the enterprise ideology as the core corporate values, corporate value, business philosophy, entrepreneurship, business principles, business purposes, business rules and regulations, Code of Conduct.(Ireland, Hoskission, 2008)
E.g Apple and Samsung patent war of the century, for example, Apple awarded $ 1 billion. South Korea’s Samsung infringed U.S. Apple patent, needs $ 1 billion in compensation. At the same time, the court finds that the Apple and Samsung did not infringe. Affected by this news, Apple’s stock price immediately rose by 1.8%, this way before Samsung change the design of these products will be in the U.S. market can not continue to sell these products. Lawsuits between Apple and Samsung is not just about patents and money is related to the value. Apple seems stresses creativity and innovation, to create the world’s best products, the manufacture of these products is to let the user satisfaction, not to allow competitors big plagiarism. (Ubertazzi, 2012).
Expert analysis : Apple disputes warning of the modern enterprise
Apple’s creative class of intangible assets in commercial signs, warning of the management problems of the modern enterprise:
First, technological innovation is important, but only technological innovation is not enough, you must also conducted a comprehensive intangible assets construction innovation.
A single class of intellectual property (patent, trademark or copyright) is not enough to solve all the problems of the enterprises, enterprises must carry out diverse IP configuration.
Second, trade names and trademarks is not just a business logo, to raise the height of intangible assets created to recognize.
Best to stay away from the general term creative in the selection of trademarks, trade names, to do trademark name with the name of the creative owner of the trademark can not prevent others from the same with your name trademark registered in other categories of goods and services. Because your trademark name is not “private rights” in the true sense, the name you choose is also the use of public resources. Trademark intangible asset value basis, is one of the trademarks Be creative, first with the larger artistic value, the value will be after the trademark rights of value, economic value, reputation. If the brand name is a common noun, it is easy for the revocation of others, lead to legal disputes.
The third set of intangible assets specialized management agencies.
Talent is a source of intangible assets, intangible assets not only to create pay greater attention to the management and operation. Important foundation for high-end complex talent to do a good job in the management of the intangible assets. Enterprise management of intangible assets should be placed in an important position, set a special intangible assets management department, equipped with specialized management of intangible assets intangible assets of enterprises integrated, comprehensive, systematic management, organizational guarantee of intangible assets management. Through high-end composite intangible assets management, promote enterprises to improve the level of management of intangible assets, improve intangible assets effective. (Acton, 2012).
Is one resource more valuable or important when the other ?
I chose the hotel industry, the analysis of the tangible and intangible resources of the hotel industry
Hotel tangible resources :is the physical form of resources, including physical resources, financial resources, organizational resources. Kind resources refers to the kind used to be the hotel customer service resources to create benefits for the hotel, such as hotel construction, decoration, equipment, etc. are in-kind resources: financial resources, including currency sources and use, such as access to finance, cash management, creditors and debtors control, dealing with currency provider relations; organizational resources, including the hotel’s formal organizational structure, composition departments
Hotel intangible resources: including human resources, reputation, resources, relationships, resources, information and technology resources. Human resources including knowledge, staff skills, managers can, practice, and thus formed hotel culture and service philosophy; the hotel reputation resources including hotel brand, hotel for reputation parties; hotel information and technical resources, including information and information storage, processing and transfer of technology, management techniques, the hotel’s reservation system; hotel relations system includes a hotel and the relationship of the parties, the contract agreement. Intangible resources of the hotel is the hotel prerequisite to gain a competitive advantage .(Enz, 2009)
Research enterprise core competitiveness mainly two ways an enterprise resource analysis to find out the advantages of resources, and the other is the enterprise value chain analysis as its core competitiveness. Ways to use this article for the former, and that analysis of the resources of the Jinjiang Inn. The resources of the enterprise can be divided into tangible resources, intangible and human resources. Which tangible resources the kind resources buildings, land, raw materials, operational resources, computers, machinery, systems and financial resources organization intangible resources of the type and quantity of available funds mainly technical resources, reputation, resources and innovative resources and human resources is the organic integration of the members of the organization to the organization to provide the skills, knowledge and reasoning and decision-making ability. (JinJiang Inn, 2012).
Physical resources: can be divided into basic and infrastructure, the basic situation of the hotel chain Jinjiang Inn has more than 500 distribution in Shanghai, Beijing and other 86 large and medium-sized cities in the country, room a total of more than 60,000 infrastructure including air conditioning, bathroom, TV, telephone, broadband internet, 24-hour hot water and other infrastructure, to show an economically practical and comfortable accommodations.
Financial resources :from the two main ways most of the investment by the parent company of Jin Jiang International Group, Another way is through public financing, Jinjiang along with its parent company, the Jin Jiang International Hotel Group in December 2006 in the success of the Hong Kong main board market market, opened overseas financing channels, into a period of rapid expansion.
Jinjiang’s technical capacity
Committed reflected in the company since the date of the establishment of the call center systems and related software, custom development and marketing, especially telemarketing system has been independently developed by the company, the industry praise Jinjiang Inn “the first in the industry to develop independent website and booking system, large client systems and guest satisfaction survey feedback system.
Reputation resources: are mainly reflected in Jinjiang since its inception in 1996, continues to be rated as “Shanghai Famous Trademark”, “Shanghai, the most growth service marks”, “Shanghai Famous Brand” won consecutive year 2006-2007 first top ten top brand influence of the Chinese economy hotel “,” China’s economy hotel brand Pioneer “honorary title. Therefore, Jinjiang Inn has a very good reputation image.
Innovation is mainly reflected in three aspects First, the introduction of low budget hotel high-end products. The budget hotel market can continue to be subdivided into high medium and low market, the current budget hotel is mainly concentrated in the mid-market, Jinjiang keen to seize this vacancy, launched a low-high-end products. Prices of low-end brands in the 100-150 yuan, the low-end brand’s target customer is still a business and family tourists, mainly for price sensitive crowd followed, the prices of high-end brands in the 250-350 yuan, product updates to Five Dynasties. More specialized than the third-generation product, the fourth-generation products humane, more suitable for the accommodation needs of business travelers, the fifth generation of the product is a green concept hotel last product, create Jinjiang chef. Jinjiang Chef “pure restaurant chain brand Jinjiang Inn Co., Ltd. was founded, it is committed to the the Jinjiang high grade dining culture into ordinary diet, and reduce costs through the chain, so the popularity of high-end cuisine, so people can experience the connotation of the Chinese diet. (Zou, 2005).
Conclusion: Can be obtained from the above analysis, Jinjiang main advantage of resources that the technical resources, innovative resources and reputation of resources, that intangible resources. Therefore, Jinjiang should focus on the use of its intangible resources to enhance their own status in the budget hotel market.
Technology market which the mobile phone industry, the hotel industry and tourism market, tangible and intangible resources, analysis and comparison, I have come to the following conclusions, tangible resources are the basis of the intangible resources, intangible resources is the sublimation of physical resources, both of those combined with each other in order to make the company or companies more competitive, with the social progress and the development of resources, many companies have shifted from the tangible resources to the development of intangible resources, tangible resources, most companies will get, but the intangible resources,accumulated by business or the company’s long-term thing, others not learn, intangible resources is the fundamental driving force of the development of the company or enterprise, in the mobile phone industry, Apple’s patented technology in particular attracted worldwide attention, the hotel industry,Although it is an emerging industry, the hotel industry in the past, the emphasis on physical resources and hardware facilities, while ignoring intangible resources, such as the brand, and so, but with the progress of society, many hotels have recognized the importance of intangible resources vigorously develop intangible resources, which will be after the mainstream of enterprise development
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