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Personality is a complex hypothetical construct that has been described in many ways. In daily life we may came across many people, It’s the fact that we wonder why some people are quiet and passive while others are loud and aggressive. The word personality is best to describe it. Personality is set of qualities that distinguish an individual from other on manners, attitude, behavior and qualities that make the person standout from the crowd. Personality cannot be determined by only outlook or appearance of a person but also by ways an individual reacts and interacts with others. It also reflects the psychological system of a person.
Personality factors rely on genetics as well as the stimuli in which an individual organism is born and raised up. The physical appearance, bone structure stature, gender, and energy level are ruled by heredity material or genetic variation. Personality Traits such as shyness, fear, aggression, actions and attitude are also attributed to genetics and DNA heredity .The culture in which a person is brought up, social circles such as friend, and family colleagues etc are some of environmental factors that influence personality of an individual.
More over there are many other researchers conducted by various scientist over personality traits and variation of personality from one individual to another for example when an employ goes for an interview and a company wants a perfect applicant for their work they will not look at his practical skills but also the overall personality factor plays an important role . So there are many theories on the personality discussed such as Big five, psychodynamic, personality measures which revolves around the personality of individual discussing the each and minute factors about the personality of an individual.
Sigmund Freud proposed this personality development theory. According to him a person’s personality is developed in thee first 6-7 years of his/her childhood.
According to this theory our personality has three parts
Consciousness: The memories and moments about which we are aware off.
Unconsciousness: About which we have no idea/unawareness.
Preconscious: Where the memories are in our unconscious but can be brought into our consciousness with a little effort
Id (pleasure principle): The unconscious portion of the personality that contains basic impulses and urges
By Freud’s point of view he described id as the unconscious part of personality, in which two kinds of ‘instincts’ takes place. Eros the life instincts. They promote positive and constructive behavior and also reflect a source of energy which is called libido or psyche energy. The id operates on pleasure principle.
Ego (reality): The part of personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego and the real world.
It basically operates on the reality principle i.e. it satisfies the id about its immediate satisfaction and unreasoning demands imposed by the society’s norms and rules. According to Freud, the healthy person has his ego as the strongest part of his personality.
Superego: The component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do.
When the child learns about the rules and regulations or values of the society they tend to adopt them, this is known as internalizing. This is the time the Superego develops. It is based on the moral principle as it tells us whether something is right or wrong.
Freud suggested that Childhood develops during childhood in a series of psychosexual stages. Failure to resolve conflicts & problems that appear at a given stage can leave a person fixated or stuck, i.e. unconsciously preoccupied with area of pleasure associated with that stage. This fixation can be seen in adult characteristics.
Oral Stage: The first of psychosexual stages, in which mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict. Because mouth is used by the child for eating and exploring so it is the centre of pleasure at this period. Child’s first year is the oral stage.
Anal Stage: Occurring during the 2nd year of life in which concentration of pleasure shifts from mouth to anus. According Freud this stage occurs as for the demand for toilet training. If the training is too harsh or starts too early can produce a kind of anal fixation that appears in adultness as stinginess or preoccupation with neatness. If toilet training is late or too lax, however the result could be another kind of anal fixation, which is reflected in adults who are disorganized or impulsive.
Phallic Stage: The most controversial stage of personality development occurs between the ages of three and five. When the child’s focus of pleasure shifts to the genital area. Freud emphasized on male psychosexual development he called this stage phallic stage (phallus is another word for penis). During this stage boy experiences sexual desires, in other words child’s superego develops in this stage.
The Oedipal complex occurs in the phallic stage of psychosexual development between the ages of three and five. This is a very important part of the stage where the sexual identity is formed. The analogous stage for girls is known as the Electra complex in which girls feel desire for their fathers and jealousy of their mothers. This is a similar situation as the above case but with daughter replacing the son and the father taking the place of the mother. Another pattern which is developed in boy in which he has affection for his mother and sexual desires and wants eliminate his father’s competition for her attention known as Oedipus complex. Super ego helps to discourage this complex by making the child learning about society, norms and ethics.
Latency period: The Fourth of his psychosexual stages, in which sexual impulses are settled down. As the youngster focuses on education, same-sex peer play, and the development of social skills.
Genital Stage: The last of the personality development stages, which starts during adulthood, when sexual desires appear at conscious level. Freud said they last for the rest of the life. Genitals again become the focus of life.
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