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The aim of this chapter is to provide a thorough critical review of existing literature concerning consumer behaviour and the increasing phenomenon known as vegetarianism. First, the various perceptions of non-vegetarians and vegetarians towards vegetarian food and lifestyle. between the different genders. Secondly, how the various aspects of the marketing mix, commonly price influences vegetarian food choice. This chapter also examines the main religions and their influence on food choice and finally the degree of influence ethics has on a person’s dietary choice.
Perception towards vegetarian foods.
A large number of Americans do not understand vegetarian food as they grew up on an American diet, which comprises mostly of meat(Pearson, 2010). The majority of North Americans are used to having meat at every meal even if there is another high-protein food is present (Reiner 2011) . Meat is considered as central food round around which meals are prepared, various types of meat are sometimes served on festive and celebratory occasions. (bender,1992). However, A study conducted by the Vegetarian Times (2008 ), revealed that 3.2 percent of U.S adults which is about 7.8 million people are on plant-based diet and 5.2 % were interested in following a vegetarian diet.
However, many people tend to believe that vegetarian food tastes bad, lacks taste, is uninteresting(Pope, 2010) or that meat has a good taste and vegetarian meat is disgustful (Vigneault,2009) which explains why many people especially men tend to avoid vegetarian food (Bailey, 2012) . However Janu (2010) argues that meat does not have taste by explaining that a person cannot eat raw meat and the digestive system rejects it and says that what gives the taste is the additional items added to the recipe and these are generally from something that is vegetarian.
(Mckeever, 2012) reports that consuming meat is regarded by many as being more virile and masculine, the traditional macho all-American male, believes that eating red meat is considered as strong and eating soy is not. It has been found that people from Western cultures link up manfulness with meat, especially muscle meat like steak(Gann,2012). Macrae(2011), reports that men who do not consume meat were viewed as less masculine than the others even by other vegetarians. Even ladies, especially vegetarians regarded men who were not eating meat as crybabies or less mach. They also found that people associated meat with more masculine words In a study by Rothgerber(2012) women were a lot more excusatory about meat consumption and men had more favourable attitudes towards meat consumption(Macari, 2012) and (William,2012), eating meat makes the latter feel like real men. If we take a brief look at history, meat has been affiliated with might, virility, manhood and as a prerogative. This has been observed during the first world war when meat was reserved for men and this was also observed in many Western, Asian and African cultures( Heine 2010). There may be a more scientific explanation to why men prefer meat, such as differences in physiology and men having a greater protein needs to build body mass as compared to women. To the traditional hunter, meat has always been considered as a reward to hunting. (Shah, 2010)
According to (Rowan, 2012) men are less likely to eat their vegetables than women and prefer meat over other foods (Bryner,2012) because they don’t have the same strong values and beliefs that eating fresh produce are beneficial to health. Furthermore, messages that convince women to eat fruits and vegetables may not have the same effects on men. There are certain situations when a man may healthily opt for salads which is in the case of social support (Ar et al. 2008) or such as when they are trying to impress someone they are eating with, when they are eating out alone or when dining with their spouse and their spouse has chosen the healthy menu ( Strahan, 2012). (Sifferlin,2012 ) further supported the last reason by asserting that men eat their vegetables so as to avoid arguments or with their wives or girlfriends and if they were left on their own in most cases, they would opt for unhealthy foods. (Shere,2012) explained this by adding that one’s personal belief influences his behavior and men are not as convinced that eating vegetables are not worth eating.
Dean(2012) suggested that it would be very difficult to educate non-vegetarian consumers to eat vegetarian or fake meat but the key could be to reshaping burgers to resemble beef and by giving them grill marks as according to(Schösler.et al,2011) the shape and its appearance are important. marks could even convince men who believe that meat is masculine to try it out and eventually help them through their transition to vegetarianism.
Perception towards a vegetarian lifestyle
When people think about a vegetarians, they imagine a skinny person, or perhaps an unhealthy one(Host 2004). Vegetarianism will not make a person skinny or thin(Olsen,2012) many people have this misconception that vegetarians eat only salads (schuna,2011) and (Beppu,2011) and removing animal products from one’s diet can help to slim down(Tyler,2012). According to Stanger(2011) and a study by Katz (2008) many people tend to believe that vegans are pale, have clearer skin. Andrews(2011) and (frankel,2010) put forward that due to certain lackings in a vegetarian diet this may cause one’s complexity to deteriorate and become pale due to insufficiencies of iron. However Groenewald(2011) refuted this by stating that if this the case the person was probably wrongly doing his diet.
There is no single reason why people become vegetarians, but one reason which is cited the most is for a healthier lifestyle(Floyd,2011). Many non-vegetarians today believe that meat is unhealthy (Wong 2006) and the most common reason people are becoming vegetarians today are due to the health benefits(Kasiser,2009).
He further adds that vegetarian diets continuously have proven to be healthier, in a way that meat, especially non-lean red meats which are high in saturated fats and may carry risks of animal-human transmission diseases.
The perception of the vegetarian diet as an efficient weight loss tool has lead many into giving up meat (Mccarron, 2011) There has been significant amount of research coming out in support of a plant-based diet, and how it helps a person to lose weight(Freston,2011) while Denos(2012) believes that it is a misconception due to the fact that since fruits and vegetables are low in calories, are loaded with vitamins and minerals people believe it should help one lose to weight. (Zeratsky,2012) states that it is true that vegetarians are usually thinner than non-vegetarians but a person can also gain weight on a vegetarian diet Zeratsky,2012) and (Sass 2012) if their portion sizes are too big and they do not get the right balance.
According to many authors, eating a lot of red meat regularly is bad for the health in the long run and increases the risks of heart diseases and other cancers(Lezard, 2012),(Bazelle,2012) and Lee(2011). On the other hand, vegetarians suffer fewer heart attacks than meat eaters. For instance, vegetarians under the age of 65 were 45% less likely to suffer a heart attack than meat eaters(Faloon,2006).
Moreover according to (MacEachern 2009) many conventional meat producers use hormones, antibiotics, and frequently process their products with chemical additives and preservatives. This tends to make the meat pinker but less healthy. He supports his argument by stating that there is a strong relationdhip between highly processed meat consumption and risks of getting colon cancer.
(Cain,2011) argues that a reason discouraging people from becoming vegetarians is having to renounce to their favourite meals, cheeseburgers or chicken wings and all the other great tastes that non-vegetarians enjoy(Markella,2006). Those who have returned to being omnivoures claimed that they began missing the taste of meat (Wong,2006). (Herzog,2011) further adds that even long-term vegetarians developed urges to taste cooked meat or developed craving for proteins when they smelt upon smelling bacon being cooked. New vegetarians say that they found it hard to give up favorite foods and adjust to the taste of substitutes for butter and dairy products. For some the toughest part to switching to a vegan diet was to give up on cheese. (Pope,2012)
(Pope, 2012) believes that for vegetarians there is a lack of social support as some people are negative and condescending towards vegetarian food and this is the main reasons why many vegetarians have returned to an omnivorous diet. (smith et al, 2000)
Many authors claim that a vegetarian diet is unhealthy in a way that that there is is insufficient proteins and a person may suffer from nutritional deficiencies(Claire 2012),(Schuna,2011), (Alan et.al2000) . Robin(2011) argued that it depends on the type of food eaten. In the case of vegan who exclude all animal proteins from their diet they may develop a B-12 defficiency and this is commonly found in meat and defficiencies of this vitamin may lead to anemia.
Assess the role of culture in the choice of vegetarian food
Sabine (2012) stated that there exists indefinite number of definitions of culture. Definitions of culture may vary from one person to another. Kroeber et al (1952) defined culture as patterns of behavior gained and transmitted through symbols, consisting of classifiable achievements of human groups including their incarnations in artefacts. Culture consists of traditional values and ideas which historically inferred and selected.Many religions promote a vegetarian lifestyle or diet, for example, Buddhism, Jainism, Hinduism, and Seventh day Adventists(Frankel, 2010)
Culture or Religion is an important determinant in one’s selection of his own diet as many eastern religions impose a vegetarian diet as compared to many western religions. According to the survey done by the Vegetarian Times (2008), this explains why India has the most vegetarians (400 million, about 40 % of the population ) as compared to the US which is only at 7.3 million. This is explained by Lingam(2010) who states that India has this strong vegetarian culture due to its religions, dating back to 500 BC where the rise of Buddhism and Jainism were teaching non-violence. Today this vegetarian lifestyle is dictated by the influence of and those having a strong belief in their religion such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism which impose a vegetarian diet.
Hinduism is the oldest and the third largest population around the world with over 900 million followers around the world (Magicman,2011). Hindus believe that all living beings have souls and one animal which is sacred and strictly forbidden to eat is the cow (Dowling, 2009). According to Srivastava(2007), all Hindu scriptures praise and glorify nonviolence. And a vegetarian diet as important in the successful practice of worship and in yoga. Hindu dharma generally recommends vegetarianism but it is not a requisite to be a Hindu. Animal flesh is considered the same as the flesh of one’s own offspring and to eat this would make one the most despicable of human beings. Moreover she quoted from the Yaj Veda that one must not use his body, which is given by god to kill other of Gods creations whether they are human, animal or whatever. (Srivastava,2007) further adds that according to the Manusmriti, one should abstain from eating any kind of flesh as this is concerned with killing and it involves killing and leads to karmic repercussions and their choice of food brings about consequences. Killing involves giving pain and according to the karmic law of cause and effect he who gives pain will receive that same amount pain.
The bible is divided into the old testament and the new testament. Based upon an analysis of the bible by Zeolla (2005) In the old testament, especially in the Genesis, which refers to the moment god created Adam and Eve and the whole universe where it is stated that god made every tree grow and those which seemed pleasant good for food and commanded that man shall eat from these trees. This section of the bible implies that at that time god wanted men to be vegetarian. However, there are sections in the bible whereby god stated that man can eat as much meat as he wishes, where god provided quails for the Israelites. Moreover, there are many situations in the bible where animal sacrifices where made to god or where he himself asked for an animal sacrifice.
Culture transmission, in principle can be transmitted from any individual to another(Acerbi,2006). It is common that lots of vegetarian parents expect their children to eat what they eat (Belkin,2009) despite other’s arguments that the child should decide when he is old enough(Madsen, 2009) or that eating meat is free choice and what you choose to eat is up to you(Vigneault,2008) . (Roth 2012) argued that kids aren’t scared of veganism and that it is adults who afraid because kids learn when we they are taught. A survey by Katz (2008) and (Berman2011), showed that many of the respondents had become vegans due to the influence of family and friends. It had been reported that the elderly’s food choice was because many elderly valued their relationships between spouses or friends over their personal taste preferences (Falk et al . 1996).
4. Determining the effects of the marketing mix on the choice of vegetarian foods
A vegetarian diet is a meal plan that consists of mostly plants such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seeds and nuts, with a small amount of or no animal products(Evert, 2011). According to Porter (2009) there are different types of vegetarian diets. If a person says that he is a vegetarian that could mean many things. In each style of vegetarian diet certain foods that are restricted. Here are a few categories of vegetarianism:
A Lacto-vegetarian consumes no animal products except for dairy(Ochel,2008)
A vegan or a strict vegetarian does not include any animal-based food products. A vegan lifestyle refers to the exclusion of all animal products, such as leather clothing and even honey because honey requires bees. A vegan diet consists carefully reading the labels of packaged foods before purchasing them to ensure they meet vegan criteria. Stein (2011)
An ovo-lacto vegetarian will not eat meat, fish, or poultry or anything which contains eggs but they do consume dairy products.
Unlike a vegan like diet, vegetarianism offers more flexibility and lets one enjoy some of the things that they are accustomed to eating. (Miles, 2009)
Americans are eating 12 % less meat than they did 5 years ago(Ketzenberger,2012) and less real meat means more fake meat(Nolan,2012.) Fake meats also known as mock meats or faux meat (Sawant,2012) have made a lot of progress in the last ten years(Nolan,2012) to becoming a multi-million dollar industry today(Olsen 2012). Mock meat is a substitute for meat made with ingredients such as tofu soy and wheat gluten to imitate the taste and appearance of real meat(John,2010).
Nolan adds that in the last year alone, over 100 new fake meat products have been introduced in the United States, from “beef tips” to “orange chicken”,”pulled pork.” fake sausage and fake burgers. When hippies and many sympathizers sought to reduce or eliminate their meat consumption in the late 1960s tofu was well positioned to grab that market, and between 1925 to 1975 America had 528 commercial tofu makers.
As stated by (Mintel 2005) manufacturers are doing their best to make alternatives look like real, and there is little in the packaging to distinguish vegetarian products. Soymilk is available in packaging that is identical to dairy milk, and meat-free hot dogs look the same as their meat-based counterparts. However, taste is a more important factor for consumers, who rejected the earlier less-tasty versions of soymilk and veggie burgers. Since then, technology has improved the flavor of vegetarian products. Also helping is the wider array of products that include flavored versions of soymilk and more complex meat alternative products (e.g. chicken-free “Buffalo-style chicken wings”). These flavored products mask or disguise the “beany flavor” that many consumers dislike.
Although processed fake meat is not healthy food, in most cases, especially from an animal rights perspective, it is given a pass or is accepted (Striepe,2011). Bittman(2012) believes that it would be very difficult to make people reduce the amount of meat they consume each day, an option which is more tasty to the mind and to the mouth is fake meat. According to (Pratt, 2012) This may bother some vegans, who do not like the idea of fake meats, and perhaps it is bringing fake meats is too realistic. Absolute vegans firmly admonish that it still counts as eating meat in spirit and thus labels them as hypocrites(Rufus,2010).
There is a strong relationship between the increase in price and the demand for vegetables. The price increases in the UK also meant that a lot of people were not buying the fresh fruits and vegetables which they need to for a healthy and nutritious diet(Pouler, 2012). In 2010 the price rises are affected many families in a way that 10 % of the poor families are consuming 25 % less fruit and 15 % less vegetables(Hill, 2012). Sheehan (2012) also argued that the economic situation is making it more costly for people to have a morehealthier meal. The price of healthier foods are increasing at a great speed than the that of the unhealthy foods, for example pizzas and burgers and people are eating less fruits and vegetables than a decade ago and more and more unhealthier foods because of its affordability.
People are now looking for a meal that fills the stomach which is the case of most junk food than food that is nutritious. According to MailOnline (2011) when the price of beef and porc had reached records, nothing seemed to have changed regard consumer spending and meat. Moreover, in Kolkata, incessant rains had led to a drastic increase in the price of vegetables which had forced many middle-income families to opt for non-vegetarian meals on their menus(Chawdhuri,2011).
(Miser 2011) states that many people hesitate to go for vegetarian meals or to become vegetarians because they believe it is much more costly and expensive. However, she opposed these beliefs by stating that a vegetarian diet is more cost-effective and not too expensive, an argument supported by Greenwood (2011). (Miser 2011) affirms a vegetarian diet is much cheaper in a way that chicken can be substituted by beans which is 60% cheaper that the costs of the latter. A person can save up on the costs of electricity which is used to keep the meat frozen. Moreover when a person is purchasing the meat they are paying for parts which are not comestible such as fat and bones.
How easy it is for one to find vegetarian food on menus depends on what type of vegetarian the person is and where he is(Goodyer,2012) . Being vegetarian can also limit your options when dining out Callahan 2010). According to ONeill (2012) It’s much harder for vegans who don’t eat eggs or cheese to find something they can eat. Japanese food has options for vegans, however Thai food (Goodyer,2012) and in Korea, where there is no Korean word for vegetarian, and which every meal has animal parts in it. (Kerp,2009).Moreover a lot of wine have animal ingredients added for flavour. Vegetarian wine isn’t that hard to find these day and the easiest way is to bring one’s own wine although in some restaurants this means paying corkage(ONeill,2012)
According to Davis (2011) restaurants don’t do vegan food because they believe there is no demand for it. Secondly it is too much of a bother, for example separating equipment that use processed meat (Schuna,2011) with such few vegans and most of them will just look at the menu in the window, or the website, and if they see nothing vegan they go somewhere else instead; If there is only one vegan item on the menu, then the only option is take it or leave it. Bigger restaurants can afford to offer a wide variety so that customers can come back but this may not be the case of the smaller ones. Thirdly, people do not dine out alone, and most vegans have mostly non-vegan friends and family.
When they’re deciding where and what to eat the one vegan influences the decision. In this case the restaurant doesn’t lose only the one vegan customer, but also their friends and family.
The 27th Annual Vegetarian Food Festival in Toronto was attended by more than 25,000 visitors over three days (Alexander 2012) The purpose of the festival is to educate. There were educational speakers, exhibits by health and wellness marketers and many samples of food by local vegetarian restaurants and food companies. All food samples family-friendly event will be completely free of animal products. (Juhng, 2012)
PETA( People for the Ethical treatment of Animals) has become known widely for shocking and offensive advertisements (Bhasin,2011) such as “Turn over a new leaf” or the “Sex with vegetables” advert therefore making it very easy to confuse PETA with an organization promoting sex with vegetables(Mahdawi,2012). An ad using sex appeal as a strategy is “All Animals Have the Same Parts–Go Vegan” advertisement. The concept of this ad, featuring Pamela Anderson, is that factory-farmed animals are made of flesh, blood, and bone, just as humans are. They have the same bodily organs, the same five senses, and the same range of emotions, just as humans do.(Schragin,20120). Here, Peta is urging people to see animals as more than just walking entrées and that animals who are raised for their meat have personalities and emotions and form families and friendships when given the opportunity. Factory farms deny animals the things that are natural and of importance to them and instead confining them to foul and constricted cages. (Croce, 2010)
Meet your meat is a video that shocked many(Felip, 2012) and according to Friedrich(2003) it is the most effective tool promoting the cause of veganism.
The twelve minutes video is a documentary showing the worst practices in the business which are considered as the standards and according to him there is not a single person who has not been touched when he or she had viewed the video. In the views of (Pettit,2012) shocking depictions of animal abuse have been found to be more effective in videos and in the case of pictures intended results were obtained when effects or graphics found it to were used to a low degree.
“Why love one but eat the other?” is a provocative ad series in Toronto, which was a great success according( Laurie Wilson, Tyler Jamieson, 2012) asking Canadians to “be veg” and it would seem riders are responding. The ad draws attention to the shocking cruelty faced by animals raised for food in Canada(NEWS,2011). (Runkle,2009)The campaign consisted of over 200 ads and drew attention to the similarities between the animals we call “family” and the animals we call “dinner.” The ads would be run would be viewed over 470,000 times per day, hence exposing millions of riders. One of the three ads features an inquisitive puppy and a cheerful piglet side-by-side and asks, “Why love one but eat the other?” The other two ads feature a fluffy kitten and an equally fluffy baby chick, and an alert Labrador Retriever next to a curious cow. In each case, these heart-warming images are juxtaposed with graphic photographs of the horrific conditions on factory farms where animals are crammed by the thousands into filthy windowless sheds. Rather than using shock tactics with bloodstained images or nudity, this campaign appeals to peoples’ sense of compassion and tenderness towards animals(Takeuchi, 2011)
(Cheeseman,2009) reports that the strategies of PETA’s adverts are based upon focalizing on creating disorder to raise attention. Remorenko (2009) raised the question as to whether these advertisements were effective and put forward that it succeeded in grabbing people’s attention and that
Vegetarian and vegan celebrities have made a big difference in bringing attention to the harsh realities of the fur and skin industry. So as to reach a larger audience, the support of celebrities is crucial. With the help of celebrities jumping aboard to adopt and promote the vegan lifestyle, the image of vegetarianism has metamorphosed significantly in recent years (Contributor, 2012).
Organisations such as Peta have many celebrity endorsers to help promote the cause such as legendary musician Paul McCartney in a campaign to say “no thanks” to turkey and eating vegan on thanksgiving. (Ciandella, 2012). A survey by (Moran,2011) however revealed that 46% of British people believe that most celebrities who promote charities are doing it to improve their own public image.
One of the key determinants of the success of a celebrity endorser as per (Ritchie, 2012) is if the celebrity fits the product. If the relationship between the celebrity, their public image and the product is a positive one, then it could mean product effectiveness. However, if the product a celebrity endorses is a doubtful match, this could hurt the product image or its success; an example is actress Natalie Portman who collaborated with startup Te Cesan to design a line of vegan friendly shoes. The shoes came with a hefty price and according to (Doan, 2008), overpriced. Within a year the company closed down due to poor sales despite one of the biggest names in Hollywood backing their product because no one thinks of vegan shoes when they think of Natalie Portman. Moreover conflicts of interest may arise and backlash. For example supermodel Naomi Campbell posed in adverts for animal rights group PETA, against wearing animal fur, but she later featured in an ad campaign for a luxury New York furrier, and appeared on the catwalk wearing real fur.(Moran,2011).
Determining the influence of animal welfare and environmental concern has on the choice for vegetarian food.
One of the most concrete reasons for vegetarian food choice is for ethical reasons(Dragunaite,2011). The concept of ethical vegetarians is, that they want to reduce harm to animals for food or any other reasons. Becoming an ethical vegetarian is a sudden process most of the time. The intent to avoid meat due to feelings of guilt, which results in avoiding the purchase of meat to support their beliefs in animal welfare(Schroder, 2004 ). According to Towell (2011) the decision of many people to not eat meat is motivated by compassion and also because they care for animals and don’t want animals to be exploited for any reasons (shoeman,2011).
Furthermore many animals in animals die in horrifying conditions in farmhouses and slaughterhouses and when people find out that animals are capable of feeling fear pain and joy they understand that their diet is not consistent with their values (Towell,211). (Owen,2012) further adds that have an intellectual advantage over other species of animals does not give one the right to oppress them but the responsibility to care for them.
According to Profita (2011) many people give up on meat for environmental reasons. This is explained by (Borden,2007) stating that a non-vegetarian diet is great burden onto our planet and is an inefficient use of resources(80% of agricultural land in America is used to grow food that is used to feed farmed animals) . Even producing beef has a negative impact on the environment as it produces large amounts of heat-trapping gases (Fiala, 2009). Vidal(2010) pointed out many ways in which it is causing harm to the environment. He adds that it is causing deforestation as may trees have been cut down to be converted into farmland. Moreover it is poisoning the earth in a way waste produced by animals are often dumped in lagoons. It is to be noted that a single farm can generate as much waste as an entire city. Finally he states that faming uses up a lot of water as 70% of it is used for faming purposes. However Collin(2010) refutes this belief by stating that soy and lentils could cause more harm to the environment and that a switch to tofu and other substitutes could increase the amount of arable land needed.
Perception towards vegetarian food
Mckeever (2012) http://eater.com/archives/2012/05/17/just-as-everyone-suspected-manly-men-prefer-eating-meat.php
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AR Psychosocial predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption in adults a review of the literature http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18471592#
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Pope, T.P, 2010,Tasty vegan food? Cupcakes show it can be done http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/06/tasty-vegan-food-cupcakes-show-it-can-be-done/
Vigneault, E.V, “But meat tastes good”, http://www.vegansoapbox.com/but-meat-tastes-good/
Rothgerber, H.G, (2012) Real Men Don’t Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat , Consumption http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2012-30417-001/
Macari, C.M, 2012, Men eating meat enhance their sense of manhood study reveals, http://news.softpedia.com/news/Men-Eating-Meat-Enhances-Their-Sense-of-Manhood-Study-Reveals-309472.shtml
Williams, A.W, 2012, Men think eating meat makes them more manly (and even veggie women think veggie men are wimps) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2236768/New-study-shows-men-think-eating-steak-burgers-bacon-makes-manly.html
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2236768/New-study-shows-men-think-eating-steak-burgers-bacon-makes-manly.html#ixzz2IPzuSkrp
Bryner, J.B, 2012, Meat
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