Pay Someone To Do Your Homework

Pay someone to write your paper and get a speedy homework service. Research paper writing. Term paper writing. Do my homework. Help my essay. Write my research paper service.

Order my paper
Calculate your essay price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

19 k happy customers
9.5 out of 10 satisfaction rate
527 writers active

Causes of Macrofaunal Outline on a Dissipative Beach

Investigating the causes of macrofaunal outline on a dissipative beach in Abberffraw.

Aim: To investigate macrofaunal abundance and distribution pattern across five different shore levels.

Hypothesis: whether physical and biological factors have direct correlation on community structures of infauna species. Cisneros et al. (2011) and Croker & Hatfield (1980) have tested this hypothesis and reported significance.


Figure lists are illustrating distribution and abundance of 31 species sampled on a vertical gradient across 5 shore heights. Out of these, three polychaetes species; Scolelepis squamata, Scoloplos armiger, Nephtys sp, including twocrustaceans Bathyporeia sp, and Eurydice pulchra were found throughout sampling stations (Fig 2). As shore slope decreases species diversity increases (Fig 1). Station 2 had maximum abundance (4050 ind./ m2) whereas station 4 had the greatest species richness (SR = 18) (Fig 1).

Sandy shores are dynamic environments with biotic (Croker & Hatfield, 1980) and abiotic (Cisneros et al., 2011) conditions changing continuously, influencing species spatial scales along shores. Three major environmental factors, influencing community structures (McLachlan & Brown, 2006); 1. beach type (physical gradient/ sediment texture); 2. tidal regime (wave action/ moisture/ organic enrichment); and 3. swash climate (water filtration) (Defeo, & McLachlan, 2005). Zonation patterns are evident, due to tidal movement (Brazeiro & Defeo 1996), seasonal migration (De Alava & Defeo 1991), and 0020900.002predation contributing to the variations. Ansell et al., (1999), reported that predators migrate following prey species. Cisneros et al. (2011), stated physical drivers influenced macrofaunal community.

Abberffraw shore consists of fine grainy sand particles with small interstitial space facilitating burrowing (McLachlan et al., 1996) and slower water filtration (McLachlan & Brown, 2006) providing suitable living conditions. Dominating middle and lower shores are Polychaetes (Connor et al., 1997) in water-saturated sediments whiles crustaceans are generally distributed at different shore levels (Dahl, 1952). Work, et al., (2008) found that water drainage is critical in determining polychaets presence; Scolelepis squamat, Scoloplos armiger andNephtys sp.can tolerate drained sediments (Connor et al., 1997) explaining the occurrence at higher stations (Fig 2). More studies are needed in determine zonation and causes (Defeo, & McLachlan, 2005).



Brazeiro, A., & Defeo, O. (1996). Macroinfauna zonation in microtidal sandy beaches: Is it possible to identify patterns in such variable environments? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 42(4), 523-536.

Cisneros, K. O., Smit, A. J., Laudien, J., & Schoeman, D. S. (2011). Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure. PloS One, 6(8), e23724.

Connor, D., Brazier, D., Hill, T., & Northen, K. (1997). Marine nature conservation review: Marine biotope classification for britain and ireland. volume 1. littoral biotopes. JNCC Report, 229.

Croker, R., & Hatfield, E. (1980). Space partitioning and interactions in an intertidal sand-burrowing amphipod guild. Marine Biology, 61(1), 79-88.

Dahl, E. (1952). Some aspects of the ecology and zonation of the fauna on sandy beaches. Oikos, 4(1), 1-27.

De Alava, A., & Defeo, O. (1991). Distributional pattern and population dynamics of excirolana armata (isopoda: Cirolanidae) in a uruguayan sandy beach. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 33(5), 433-444.

Defeo, O., & McLachlan, A. (2005). Patterns, processes and regulatory mechanisms in sandy beach macrofauna: A multi-scale analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 295, 1-20.

McLachlan, A., & Brown, A. (2006). Sandy beaches as ecosystems.

Work, F., Hubble, M., Teague, L., Tennant, K., Skidmore, L., Webb, H., Gillespie, B. & Lister, J. (2008). Project: SC 410354 Date of Issue: June 2008.

McLachlan, A., de Ruyck. A., & Hacking, N. (1996). Community structure on sandy beaches: patterns of richness and zonation in relation to tide range and latitude. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 69, 451-67

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our Guarantees

Money-back Guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism Guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision Policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy Policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation Guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more