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The present research is on the “antidiabetic, wound healing and antimicrobial activities of various parts of Cassia fistula.“
Diabetes is one of the most prevalence chronic diseases in the world. This is a chronic incurable condition due to insulin deficiency that affect 10% of the population. The number of diabetic people is expected to rise from present estimate of 150 million to 230 million in 2025. For a long time, diabetes has been treated with several medicinal plants or their extract based on the folkloreÂ medicine. Infection is also the major problem to treat the wound and wound infections areÂ mostÂ common in developing countries because of poor hygienic conditions. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuspyogenes, Escherichiacoli, and Pseudomonasaeruginosa areÂ someÂ important Â organisms causing wound infection .NowadaysÂ herbalÂ medicinesÂ areÂ highly recommended for Â the treatment of diabetes inspite of other therapeutic option, which can produce serious side effects.
Cassia fistulais an important and potential medicinal plant. The Cassia fistula is the substantial evidences on the anti -bacterial activities of its pod and seed extracts. Cassiafistulapossess antioxidant, antimutagenic, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antitussive,antimicro bial, anti-inflammatory and so many activities. Its antioxidant activity plays a role in wellness, health maintenance, and the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. It is recognized Â as a rich source of vitamins, flavanoids,Â tanninsÂ glycosides’,Â phospholipids,Â carbohydrates.Â The evaluation of toxic properties of Cassia fistula is also crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts can result in undesirable effects on consumers. Acute oral Â toxicity of C. fistulaseeds extract t shows that oral administration of crude extract even atÂ the highest dose of (5000 mg/kg) resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that C.fistulain nontoxic. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.
The methanolic extract of Cassia fistulaleaves was examined for its wound healing property in the form of an ointment.The leaves are laxative and used externally as emollient, a poultice used for chilblains,Â Â Â inÂ Â Â insectÂ Â Â bites,Â Â Â swelling, rheumatism and facial paralysis. Leaves are used in ulcers, external skin eruptions and eczema. Fruits are used as cathartic, in snake bite and asthma. BarksÂ Â possessÂ Â tonicÂ Â andÂ Â antidysentric properties. It is also used for skin complaints, leprosy, jaundice, syphilis and heart diseases.So attempt has been made to study the antidiabetic activity of the glycoside containing fractions. In traditional medicine, it is used in the treatment of hematemesis, pruritis, intestinal disorders, leucoderma, diabetes,Â & as antipyretic, analgesic & laxative. The innumerable medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of Cassia fistula as well as its phytochemical investigations prove its import nce as a valuable medicinal plant.
2.Objectives (To be attained):
3.Literature Survey: (Brief survey of past work done on the topic and any related work with reference, developing need for present study).
The antidiabetic potential of the total alcoholic extract & its ethyl acetate fraction of the bark of Cassia fistula was studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant reduction in blood glucose levels than alcoholic extract & was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids to normal levels. The activity was found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. The present investigation of the plant established some pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim and effect of glycoside containing fraction that is used as an antidiabetic.
Â Â Â Â Â Â The plant Phyllanthus reticulatus is claimed to have antidiabetic activity in tribal area. To validate the tribal claim,the petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of leaves of the P. reticulatus were orally tested at 500 and 1000 mg/kg for hypoglycemic effect in alloxan induces diabetic mice. It shows antidiabetic activity at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. The phytochemical screening of the residues revealed the presence of terpenoids glycosides, protein, carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids and steroids.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Cassia fistula Linn is used extensively in various parts of the world against a wide range of ailments, the synergistic action of its metabolite production being most probably responsible for the plant’s beneficial effects. This paper reviews the primary and secondary metabolite composition of vegetative and reproductive plant parts and cell cultures thereby derived, with emphasis on potent phenolic antioxidants such as anthraquinones, flavonoids and flavan-3-ol derivatives In order to establish this, it is imperative to measure the markers of baseline oxidative stress particularly in human health and disease and examine how they are affected by supplementation with pure compounds or complex plant extracts from the traditional medicinal plants.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Medicinal herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cassia fistula.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â C. fistula treated rats showed, better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Biochemical analysis and matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of C. fistula in the treatment of the infected wound.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The present review focused on plant extracts or phytochemicals role in diabetes management has been tried by many researchers. I have attempted to compile a list of total 419 plant species belongs to 133 families have been used for in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The researchers have used different parts of the plant extracts or individual phytochemicalsfor antidiabetic activities. This review brings the researcher data on antidiabetic activities of different plant extracts role in reducing of diabetic problems.
Â Â Â Â Â Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. 
Â Â Â Â Â Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts from the flower of Cassia fistula (an ethnomedicinal plant) were tested against bacteria and fungi. All the extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) between 0.078 and 2.5 mg/ml. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, only Pseudomonas aeruginosa was susceptible to the extracts. Ethyl acetate crude extract was fractionated using chromatographic techniques. A crystal was isolated, which was confirmed as 4-hydroxy benzoic acid hydrate using X-ray crystallography. It exhibited antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC 0.5 mg/ml) and Epidermophyton floccosum (MIC 0.5 mg/ml).
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In the present study antifungal activity of crude and partially purified extracts of Cassia fistula L. fruit pulp has been assayed against Alternaria solani which is responsible for early blight of potato. Cold and hot extracts of fruit pulp was prepared in different organic solvents, which were subsequently recycled by rotary vacuum evaporator. Antifungal activity of different fractions was determined by poison food technique. Maximum percent extractive value was obtained with alcoholic extract. The antifungal activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, this plant can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The plant Michelia champaca (MC) is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, constipation, dysmenorrhea, ulcers, wounds, fever, and cough. The aim was to evaluate the wound healing property of ethanolic extract of MC flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Wound healing activity was assessed by incision and excision wound models. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test.
Anita Singh et al. studied the plant Cassia fistula Linn. Belonging to family leguminosae, known as Cassia in English, Amaltas in Hindi. The methanolic extract of plant pod, showed the presence of glycoside, steroids, amino acids, flavanoids. The present study was focused to evaluate antipyretic activity of pod of Cassia fistula Linn. The methanolic extract showed antipyretic activity, which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than control rats. The antipyretic activity of Cassia fistula Linn. Is due to individual or combined action of bioactive constituent present in it. The present finding results provide scientific evidence of ethano botanical use of the plant of Cassia fistula.
. Shashi Kanth, et al. studied on the stem bark of Cassia fistula Linn for laying down preliminary Pharmacognostical identification standards.Cassia fistula Linn .is known as Aragvadha in Ayurveda is an important medicinal plant belonging to family Caesalpiniaceae. The stem bark is anti dysenteric, laxative and diuretic.The diagnostic features are the presence of starch grains, stone cells, crystalliferous phloem fibers, uni or bi seriate medullary rays.
Raju Ilavarasan et al.Â studiedAnti-inflammatory and Antioxidant activities of the aqueous (CFA) and methanolic extracts (CFM) of the Cassia fistula Linn. Bark were assayed in wistar albino rats. The extracts were found to posses’ significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and chronic models.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â M. A. Islam et alÂ represented the concentration of antimicrobial at which there is complete inhibition of growth of organism. In order to determine the MIC of cloxacillin, 10 MRSA were previously detected from 40 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Agar plate dilution test was used to determine the MIC of cloxacillin.
a)Brief description of how research will be conducted.
Extracts of Cassia fistla will be obtained through soaking the dried leaves and peel in different solvents( water, methanol,ethanol, n-hexane), concentrating them in rotary evaporator and then phytochemical studies will be carried out. Antimicrobial activity as well as quantitative analysis will be carried out on the extracts.
b)Experimental set up:
Techniques for the characterization
Specialized studies in the antidiabetic, wound healing and antitmicrobial activities of various parts cassia fistula plant is made through detailed literature survey, chemical abstract services, world wide webs, journals reviews and biosynthesis texts.
d)Results expected and method of the Analysis:
Positive results are to be expected from experimental setup selected. Analysis of the plant extracts in different solvents will be done via GC-MS, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. After that these extracts will be compared with each other on the basis ofÂ phytochemical studies as well as on the basis ofÂ their quantitative data.
5.Utilization of research results:
After this study we will be able
So there is a hope of positive results, which will then be used for the treatment of diabetes and wound.
6.Research Time Table:
Literature surveyÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â January- Feb 2017
Collection of sampleÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 1st March- April 2017
Experiment workÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 1st May – October 2017
Thesis writingÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 1st – November 2017
Submission of thesisÂ December 2017
1. Malpani Sn, Manjunath Kp, Hasanpasha Sholapur,Savadi Sv, Akki Kusum S.Â AndÂ Darade Ss..Antidiabetic Activity Of Cassia Fistula Linn. Bark In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Int.Journal Of Pharm Sci.,Jan-April 2010;2(1):382-385
2. Kumar S, Kumar D, Deshmukh RR, Lokhande PD, More SN, Rangari VD. Antidiabetic potential of Phyllanthus reticulates in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Fititerapia 2008; 79: 21-23.
3. Bahorun T, Neergheen V S, Aruoma O I. Phytochemical constituents of Cassia fistula African Journal of Biotechnology ,2005: 4(13); 1530-1540
4. Danish M, Singh P, Mishra G, Srivastava Jha S K K, Khosa R L.Cassia fistula Linn. (Amulthus)- An Important Medicinal Plant: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry andPharmacological Properties. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour; 2011:1(1); 101- 118
5.Kumar muthusamy sethil, Ramasamy S, Raghvan H V and SehgalP K. Wound healing potetial of cassia fistulla on infected Albino rat model.Journal of surgical research; 2006: 131; 283-289.
6. Suneetha, B., D. Sujatha and K.V.S.R.G Prasad, . Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of stem juice of Musa Paradisiaca on alloxan induced diabetic rats. An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences,2010; 1(2): 167-176.
7. Kumar VP, Chauhan NS, Padhi H, Rajani M. Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;67:241-45.
8. Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cassia fistula L.: An ethnomedicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:590-4.
9. Bhalodia NR, Nariya PB, Acharya RN, Shukla VJ. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts. Ayu 2012;33:123-9.
10. Hajra S, Mehta A, Pandey P. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of Cassia fistula and Flacoartia indica leaves. J Pharm Res 2011;4:2432-35.
11. Robson MC. Wound infection. A failure of wound healing caused by an imbalance of bacteria. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77(3):637-50.
12.Singh A, Manjul P. Singh, Alam G, Pate A, Dat N, Antipyretic activity of cassia fistulaÂ Â linn. Pods. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., (2012), 2 (3):385-388.
13.Kanth J. Shashi , Chandra reddy P. Rama , Rao P.Padma,.Vijaya BhaskerÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Reddy,A preliminary pharmacognostical report on the stem bark of cassia fistula linn.J.D.Med. (2012),4(1).
14.Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, and Venkataraman S. Anti-inflammatory andÂ Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula Linn.Bark extracts. Afr.J. Trad.Cam, 2005; 2: 70-85.
Â Â Â 15. Islam M. A, Alam M. M , Choudhury M. E , Kobayashi N,Â andÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Ahmed M. U , Â Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (Mic) Of Cloxacillin For Selected Isolates Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) With Their Antibiogram. Bangl. J. Vet. Med. (2008). 6 (1): 121-126.
Â Â Â 16. Bhalerao S.A, Kelkar T.S. Traditional medicinal uses, phytochemical profileÂ Â and pharmacological activities of cassia fistula linn. (2012).
Â Â Â 17. Harshal A Deshpande, Sanjivani R Bhalsing,Recent advances in the phytochemistry of some medicinally important cassia species: a review. Int. J. Pharm. Med. & Bio. Sc( 2013),2( 3).
Â Â 18. Rajagopal PL,Premaletha K, Kiron S.S , Sreejith K.R . Phytochemical and pharmacological review on cassia fistula linn. The golden shower. IJPCBS(2013), 3(3), 672-679.
Â Â 19. Maya kushawaha and r. C. Agrawa ,biological activity of medicinal plant cassia fistula – a review. (2012).
Â Â 20. Kumar M.S, Sripriya R,Wound Healing Potential of Cassia fistula on infected Albino Rat Model. Journal of Surgical Research:( 2006); 131: 283-289.
8.Comments of Supervisor:
This Project is fully apprehended and evaluated and found feasble for project work of MPhil Thesis as a partial fulfillment of Degree of M. Phil in Applied Chemistry from Chemistry Department, University of Engineering & Technology.
Signature of SupervisorSignature of Student
Endst. No. Univ./______________Dated: _____________
The above proposal duly recommended by the Departmental Board of Studies/Committee of Post-Graduate Studies in its meeting held on _____________ is forwarded to the Director of Research for obtaining the approval of the Vice-Chancellor.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Chairman/Director
of the Department
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